1593 that may depict
Rowse debunks Aemilia's focus on religion and virtue as mere posturing, an attempt to cover up the "fact" that men no longer found her attractive (24). Her history with men -- Lord Hunsdon in fact, Shakespeare and Forman in speculation --is treated as inseparable from her character. Rowse does not allow for the changes that maturity can work on even the wildest heart. Who else might he condemn to suffer forever the mistakes of their youth?
"Salve Deux Rex Judaeorum" is a retelling of the crucifixion and resurrection of Christ in the context of the ultimate crime of men (not to be confused with mankind, which includes both men and women). Aemilia's description of Christ's personality overflows with traits that might be defined as traditionally feminine.
He was content to stoope unto their Lure,
Although his Greatnesse might doe otherwise;
Here Grace was seised on with hands impure,
And Virtue now must be supprest by Vice,
Pure Innocencie made a prey to Sinne,
Thus did his Torments and our Joyes beginne.
Here faire Obedience shined in his breast,
And did suppresse all feare of future paine;
Love was his Leader unto this unrest,
Whil'st Righteousnesse doth carry up his Traine;
Mercy made way to make us highly blest,
When Patience beat downe Sorrow, Feare and Paine:
Justice sate looking with an angry brow,
On blessed misery appeering now.
(Lanyer 1993, 74)
This is all the more striking for his being brought down by men, whose representative traits stand in sharp contrast to Chist's qualities. Even Death, Sin and Tyranny are characterized as male.
"Righteousnesse doth carry up his Traine," from the above excerpt, presents the reader with the image of a bride marching down the aisle. One might infer that Aemilia saw her marriage to Alphonso as a personal sacrifice, one which forever removed her from the Royal court. Further on, the narrator says of the persecution, "Nor can their wisdoms any way discover, / Who he should be that proov'd so true a Lover" (Lanyer 1993, 80). Are you listening, Dr. Rowse? Sounds to me like Aemilia wishes that all men could be so true to love as Christ to his faith.
Aemilia holds many men accountable for the crucifixion, but guilt first falls on the head of the Disciple Judas. Although he is not named -- as if his very name would blight the tongue of the speaker -- his story is unmistakable.
See thy Betrayer, whom too well they knowe,
One of the twelve, now object of disgrace,
A trothlesse traytor, and a mortall foe,
With fained kindnesse seekes thee to imbrace;
And gives a kiss, whereby he may deceive thee,
That in the hands of Sinners he may leave thee.
(Lanyer 1993, 72)
The other Disiples abandon Jesus to his fate, "Though they protest they never will forsake him / They do like men, when dangers overtake them" (Lanyer 1993, 78). In other words, they protect their own backsides. Even Peter, as Christ predicted, denies him three times.
Aemilia goes on to suggest that man's responsibility for the death of Christ sheds new light on Eve's role in mankind's expulsion from Eden. While women wear the shame of Original Sin, Aemilia argues that Adam should be held accountable.
Who being fram'd by Gods eternall hand,
The perfect'st man that ever breath'd on earth;
And from Gods mouth receiv'd that strait command,
The breach whereof he knew was present death;
Yea having powre to rule both Sea and Land,
Yet with one Apple wonne to loose that breath
Which God had breathed in his beauteous face,
Bringing us all in danger and disgrace.
(Lanyer 1993, 85)
He was the physically stronger of the two, the master of Eden, in direct communication with God. Eve ate of the Tree of Knowledge through the deception of the Serpent; she passed on the "gift" to Adam out of innocence and love. Adam knew better than she the consequences of the act and should have been able to resist temptation. Wherever one places the blame, Aemilia says, the persecution of Jesus is a far greater sin.
TO BE CONCLUDED